Three-species food chain model with cannibalism in the second level

Ahmed Sami Abdulghafour, Raid Kamel Naji


This article suggests and explores a three-species food chain model that includes fear effects, refuges depending on predators, and cannibalism at the second level. The Holling type II functional response determines food consumption between stages of the food chain. This study examined the long-term behavior and impacts of the suggested model's essential elements. The model's solution properties were studied. The existence and stability of every probable equilibrium point were examined. The persistence needs of the system have been determined. It was discovered what conditions could lead to local bifurcation at equilibrium points. Appropriate Lyapunov functions are utilized to investigate the overall dynamics of the system. To support the analytical conclusions, numerical simulations were done to validate the model's inferred long-term behavior and to comprehend the implications of the model's significant parameters.

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Published: 2023-08-11

How to Cite this Article:

Ahmed Sami Abdulghafour, Raid Kamel Naji, Three-species food chain model with cannibalism in the second level, Commun. Math. Biol. Neurosci., 2023 (2023), Article ID 84

Copyright © 2023 Ahmed Sami Abdulghafour, Raid Kamel Naji. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Commun. Math. Biol. Neurosci.

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